Project Supported by Higher Education Institutions, 2019 - 2021
As a result of the Ethnoveterinary studies carried out in the province of Van (Turkey) during the vegetation periods of 2019-2021, it was determined that a significant portion of the local people engaged in ovine and bovine breeding as a means of livelihood or additional income. For years, Van is ranked first in terms of ovine breeding in Turkey.
The plants used by the people living in Van and its districts against animal diseases from the past to the present and the traditional usage information regarding these plants were determined through face-to-face interviews with the public. 118 plant taxa including 99 genera belonging to 45 families, which the local people use against animal diseases, were collected in the field together with the users. These 118 plant samples collected were turned into herbarium material according to herbarium techniques. After the identification of these plants, the parts of 50 plants used against 40 animal diseases were collected in sufficient amount and dried in the shade. It is then ground and stored under suitable conditions for the determination of the active ingredients and finally for the animal and / or in vitro trials to be carried out.
Ethnoveterinary information of the plants used in the region against animal diseases was compiled on-site, samples of these plants were taken, and the folkloric study was documented with the sound recordings and videos of the plant usage information. After the diagnosis of the flowering plant specimens in the field with the information about the use, all the data on the diseases used by the people in accordance with the versatile uses are given in the report in alphabetical order.
With this project, it was determined that the local people in the research area, which has a rich vegetation, have not yet lost this cultural identity in the ethno-veterinary area. 340 usage data belonging to this traditional usage in the ethno-veterinary field were recorded. On the other hand, it was also determined that as a result of the rapid migration from the village to the city in our region, the knowledge of the people living in the rural areas about plants is forgotten and lost day by day. It has been determined in face-to-face interviews that animal breeders, especially in rural areas, have very easy access to veterinarians and medicines recently, and when there is no new generation to transfer this plant use culture from past to present, cultural values in this area have begun to be forgotten. With this study, almost all of these experiences and knowledge used by the public against 40 different animal diseases that they have acquired for thousands of years have been recorded as targeted in the project. Among 118 different plant taxa that were used against these diseases, the parts of 50 plants used against animal diseases, the most common use of the local population, were collected separately and dried in the shade. The information on the use of diseases belonging to these plants is brought to a scientific platform with the contributions of Chemistry, Pharmacy, Molecular Biology and Genetics and other disciplines and made ready to be presented to Veterinary Medicine.
According to the animal breeders in the research area, none of the diseases they encounter in the animals they breed pose a greater threat to animal health as much as internal and external parasites. Internal and external parasites in animals mainly result in a decrease in body weight, damage to tissues and organs, an increase in diarrhea and anaemia, a gradual decrease in appetite and feed consumption and eventually in mostly death. A large number of parasite species have been identified in Van and its surroundings, settling on the internal organs and tissues of animals and on the head and skin externally.
With this project, animal diseases that constitute a very important problem in the field of animal health in the region were also detected in the field. And traditional natural treatment methods of the people for these diseases have been recorded. Within the framework of the target of eliminating these diseases, integration with the European Union's animal health and welfare legislation and the fight against epidemic animal diseases with traditional and modern methods was also harmonized with EU practices.
During the 210-day fieldwork conducted in the field within the scope of the project, samples of the taxa, whose use of Ethno-veterinaries against Animal Diseases in Van and its surroundings were determined, were collected and identified. Field studies were carried out in 210 neighbourhoods of 13 districts in the province of Van. Traditional information on Animal Diseases in Van and its surroundings was recorded personally from 277 people, 129 women and 148 men, and relevant biological materials were collected. The family name, Latin name, local name, locality information, gathering place and date of gathering, used part of the plant, usage description and detailed information about the users of each plant were recorded.
A total of 118 taxa belonging to 45 families were reported as being traditionally used to treat animal diseases in Van. Asteraceae (21 taxa), Apiaceae (10 taxa), Malvaceae (9 taxa), Fabaceae (7 taxa), Poaceae (5 taxa), Lamiaceae (5 taxa), Scrophulariaceae (4 taxa) ve Brassicaceae (4 taxa) were found as the most cited plant families. The most cited medicinal plants were Thymus fallax Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (8), Rhus coriaria L. (8), Olea europaea L. (7), Alcea calverti (Boiss.) Boiss. (6), Globularıa trichosantha Fish. ex. C.A.Mey (6), Allium sativum L. (6), Arctium tomentosum Miller. var. glabrum (Körnicke) Arenes (6), and Allium cepa L. var. cepa (5) respectively. These plants are frequently used to cure various animal ailments such as dermatological, gastrointestinal, and parasitic diseases.
The goals of the project, set out in the proposal phase, were fully (100%) achieved.
Key words: Animal Diseases, Ethnobotany, Ethnoveterinary, Medicinal Plants, Van.