We aimed to investigate the modulating effects of dietary borax on the pathways in rainbow trout brain exposed to copper. For this aim, a comprehensive assessment was performed including biochemical (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and caspase-3 levels) and transcriptional parameters (heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and cytochromes P450 (CYP1A), glutathione peroxidase (gpx), superoxide dismutase (sod), and catalase (cat)) parameters and immunohistochemically staining of 8-OHdG. Special fish feed diets were prepared for the trial. These diets contained different concentrations of borax (1.25, 2.5, and 5mg/kg) and/or copper (500 and 1000mg/kg) at the period of pre- and co-treatment strategies for 21days. At the end of the treatment periods, brain tissue was sampled for each experimental group. As a result, the biochemical parameters were increased and AChE activity decreased in the copper and copper-combined groups in comparison with the control group and also with only borax applications (p<0.05). We observed an increase or decrease in particular biochemical parameters for the borax group in every application and we established that borax had protective effect against copper toxicity by decreasing and/or increasing the relevant biochemical parameters in brain tissue of fish. The biochemical results of borax and its combinations corresponded to the observations of gene expression data, which similarly concluded that HSP70 and CYP1A genes were strongly induced by copper (p<0.05). In addition, the expression levels of the sod, cat, and gpx genes in the fish brains exposed to borax and the borax combination groups were significantly higher than the only copper-treated groups. In conclusion, borax supplementation provided significant protection against copper-induced neurotoxicity in trout.