Anticancer Effect of 1-(Anthracen-10-ylmethyl)-3-(2-cyanobenzyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-3-ium chloride in 2D and 3D Cell Culture Models in Breast Cancer

Çakır M., Akar S., Çakır Ş., AKKOÇ S., Özkol H., Tülüce Y.

Eastern Journal of Medicine, vol.29, no.2, pp.244-251, 2024 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.5505/ejm.2024.03708
  • Journal Name: Eastern Journal of Medicine
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, Veterinary Science Database, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.244-251
  • Keywords: 4T1, Apoptosis, Benzimidazole, Migration, TNBC
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive subgroup of breast cancer that exhibits a highly complex and heterogeneous character has led researchers to seek for new and effective therapeutic agents due to the inadequacy of current treatment opt ions. In the literature, there are benzimidazole derivatives whose antiproliferative effects have been investigated in many in vivo and in vitro studies. In the present study, a benzimidazolium salt (BS), namely 1-(anthracen-10-ylmethyl)-3-(2-cyanobenzyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-3-ium chloride was prepared from 2-((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl) methyl) benzonitrile (1 mmol) and 10-(chloromethyl) anthracene (1 mmol). In our study, it was aimed to investigate the anticarcinogenic effects of above-mentioned BS, which was previously shown to be more effective than cisplatin (the chemotherapy agent being used in the treatment of TNBC) on 4T1 cel ls. Cell viability 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D), colony forming, 3D spheroid formation, wound healing scratch assay and Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI) staining analyzes were used to determine cell growth/proliferation, migration and apoptosis, respectively. According to the results, BS significantly reduced viability/proliferation, colony formation and migration in 4T1 cells, even at low doses. It also induced apoptosis. It was concluded that, BS is a potential antiproliferative agent that reduces the carcinogenic properties of 4T1 cells through inhibiting cell proliferation, migration as well as inducing apoptosis. Its mechanism of acti on should be elucidated with further studies.