The aim of this study was to investigate neurophysiological responses in rainbow trout brain tissue exposed to natural/botanical pesticides. Fish were exposed to botanical and synthetic pesticides over a 21-day period. At the end of the treatment period, oxidative DNA damage (indicated by 8-OHdG (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine), AChE activity (acetylcholinesterase) and transcriptional parameters (gpx (glutathione peroxidase), sod (superoxide dismutase), cat (catalase), HSP70 (heat shock protein 70) and CYP1A (cytochromes P450)) was investigated in control and application groups. Our results indicated that brain AChE activities decreased very significantly in fish treated with both insecticide types when compared with control (p < 0.05). 8-OHdG activity increased in a dose/time-dependent situation in the brain tissues of Oncorhynchus mykiss (p < 0.05). In addition, with regards to gene expression, gpx sod and, cat expressions were down-regulated, whereas CYP1A and HSP70 gene expression were up-regulated in fish treated with both insecticides when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The data for this study suggests that bio-pesticides can cause neurophysiological changes in fish brain tissue.