Associations between the levels of depression and the sense of limitedness: a psychometric analysis

Boysan M., BESIROGLU L., KARA H., Kayri M., Keskin S.

ANADOLU PSIKIYATRI DERGISI-ANATOLIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, vol.9, no.4, pp.191-196, 2008 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.191-196
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


Objective: The sense of limitedness is a cognitive orientation that represents individuals' limited, fixed, and interdependent attributions about interpersonal relations and life opportunities, which are sources for growth and motivation. The cognition is thought as a risk factor for onset of depression. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the sense of limitedness, depression, and other risk factors for depression in the study. Methods: The Limitedness Schemas Questionnaire was developed to assess the level of limitedness orientation as a cognitive style. Data were collected from 767 university students and 142 adult subjects via the Limitedness Schemas Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Learned Helplessness Scale. Subscales of the Limitedness Schemas Questionnaire were obtained by using principle components analysis. Correlations between psychological variables and sense of limitedness were used for evaluation of convergent validity. Results: The Limitedness Schemas Questionnaire had an inner consistency of 0.89. A four-factor structure was obtained for the 30-item Limitedness Schemas Questionnaire. Total and subscale scores of Limitedness Schemas Questionnaire were significantly correlated with depression, anxiety, self esteem, and learned helplessness. Discussion: Results have shown that the Limitedness Schemas Questionnaire is a reliable and valid construct. Results also revealed that sense of limitedness may be a cognitive vulnerability factor for both depression and for other types of psychopathology. (Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry 2008; 9: 191-196)