Background The experiences acquired in the first years when development and learning are most rapid make up the basis for subsequent periods. The aim in this research to determine whether the 'Home-Centered Cognitive Development Support Program', delivered to socio-economically disadvantaged infants aged between 18 and 24 months, had an impact on the cognitive development of the infants. Methods An experimental design with pre-test, post-test and retention test control group was used as methodology for the research. Thirty infants, 15 in the experiment group and 15 in the control group, were included in the study. The Cognitive Assessment Tool for Young Children - CAYC, which was adapted to Turkish, was used to measure the cognitive development of infants in the study. In line with the objective of the study, a cognitive development support programme was implemented for infants aged 18 to 24 months, 2 days a week during 12 weeks, through home visits. To assess the effectiveness of the programme, pre-test, post-test and retention test results were compared. Results Based on the results of the study, the Home-Centered Cognitive Development Support Program revealed a significant difference in the cognitive development of infants in the experiment group. The post-test mean score for all infants in the experimental group was significantly higher compared with the pre-test score. Conclusion The outcomes related to the Home-Centered Cognitive Development Support Program, which was applied individually to infants aged between 18 and 24 months, were discussed in terms of the cognitive development of the infants.