The apple rust mite Aculus schlechtendali (Nal.) (Acari: Eriophyidae), is a main pest in apple-growing areas in Ankara, Turkey, and chemical control applications have some limitations. Entomopathogenic fungi have a potential for biological control of mites. In this study, an entomopathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes), was first isolated from the mite cadavers on Japanese crab apple leaves and pathogenicity of the fungus was observed in different inoculum densities and relative humidities. The pathogen caused up to 98.22% mortality of the mite population. The effects of some fungicides on the entomopathogenic fungus were determined in in vitro studies. Carbendazim, penconazole and tebuconazole were the most effective fungicides on mycelial growth of P. lilacinus, with EC50 values under 3 A mu g ml(-1). In spore germination tests, captan, mancozeb, propineb were the most effective fungicides, followed by tebuconazole, penconazole, nuarimol and chlorothalonil. Sulphur could not inhibit the conidia germination totally at 5,000 A mu g ml(-1). Copper oxychloride and fosetyl-al prevented conidia formation at concentrations above 1,000 A mu g ml(-1).