Petrographic study and geochemical investigation of the evaporites associated with the Germik Formation (Siirt Basin, Turkey)

Yeşilova P. G. , HELVACI C.

CARBONATES AND EVAPORITES, cilt.32, ss.177-194, 2017 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 32 Konu: 2
  • Basım Tarihi: 2017
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1007/s13146-015-0285-y
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.177-194


Evaporites of the Oligocene Germik Formation are represented by massive, laminated, laminated-banded, banded, nodular and/or brecciated nodular and nodular-banded lithofacies in the Siirt-Kurtalan area. Observations of massive and laminated-banded gypsums with undulated-shaped stromatolitic algal mats, corrugated folded structures and clay-carbonate and interlayered marl in laminated gypsum levels are very important in terms of their mechanisms of occurrences. Petrographic and mineralogic examinations of secondary gypsums in the Germik Formation generally display alabastrine and porphyroblastic textures with corroded anhydrite. Structures as satin-spar, chickenwire, enterolithic and minerals as dolomite, calcite and celestite are also observed. Geochemical evaluations of gypsum and anhydrite samples belong to the lithofacies have provided an approach of their original formation and understandings the environmental impacts (such as pH, paleotemperature, paleosalinity, surface-groundwater activity and bacterial activity). Therefore, a number of analyses were conducted on the different samples for major and trace elements and the gypsum-anhydrite samples were analyzed for isotope compositions. Trace elements of these evaporites were found to be in the range of the geochemical values of the depositional environment of shallow marine evaporites. These values show also occasional influx of terrestrial waters to the environment. Moreover, the differences in the isotopic values of the lithofacies identified by the stable isotopic studies indicate the effects of temperature, salinity, biogenic activity and diagenetic processes for the formation of evaporites, under the influence of climate. Geochemical evolution of gypsum and anhydrite lithofacies of the Germik Formation leads up to muddy evaporites indicating that they were deposited in the coastal sabkha or shallow marine environments within effectively developed paleoclimatic conditions, tectonic activities, diagenetic processes and depositional system.