Objective: To evaluate the risk factors related to gynecology and obstetrics, and the incidence of urethral syndrome in our gynecological practice. Study design: The study comprised 35 patients without urinary tract infection who admitted to our department of gynecology with the complaints of recurrent urinary irritation symptoms, sensation of incomplete emptying and burning sensation during urination after sexual intercourse. A total of 200 women served as controls. Results: We found urethral syndrome in 15% of patients. The incidence of grandmultiparity and the delivery without episiotomy were significantly higher in the study group than controls using univariate analysis. Considering logistic regression analysis, we found that grandmultiparity, two or more abortus, hospital delivery, delivery without episiotomy and pelvic relaxation were risk factors for the urethral syndrome. Conclusion: Although urethral syndrome is often detected in gynecological practice, it has not yet been reached utmost importance. Grandmultiparity and delivery without episiotomy are the major risk factors accompanying urethral syndrome. (C) 1999 Published by Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.