A novel nanotechnological strategy for obtaining fat-reduced cookies in bakery industry: Revealing of sensory, physical properties, and fatty acid profile of cookies prepared with oil-based nanoemulsions

Ekin M. M., Kutlu N., Meral R., Ceylan Z., Cavidoğlu İ.

FOOD BIOSCIENCE, vol.42, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 42
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.fbio.2021.101184
  • Journal Name: FOOD BIOSCIENCE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC
  • Keywords: Cookie, Fat-reduced cookie, Nanoemulsion, Nanotechnology, DOUGH, FLOUR, REPLACEMENT, TEXTURE, QUALITY, STARCH, AGENTS, FIBER
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


The present study aimed that the fat reduction in cookies without compromising the desired properties. Oil-loaded nanoemulsions (NEs) with a diameter of 169.8-363.4 nm were fabricated and added to the formulation. The spread ratio was increased from 5.17 to 7.84. Hardness was decreased by approximately 18.40-40.27%. The total ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of control was determined to be 63.35% and 36.64%, respectively. In the case of the NE incorporated cookies, the level of unsaturated fatty acids was increased up to around 42.60-56.54%. The level of saturated fatty acids was reduced to 35.59-57.39%. The sensory properties of the cookies including only 2 g nano-size oil were better than those of the control cookies. Although the fat amount was reduced in NE-containing samples, the greasiness perception of cookie samples was not changed. Consequently, according to the results of the sensory assessment, coconut oil-incorporated cookies were the most favorable in terms of overall quality, greasiness perception, flavor, and buying predisposition. The present study can play a guiding role for further studies in the bakery industry.