Practical applications Chitosan nanoparticle integrated in poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofiber (IPN) was obtained by using the electrospinning technique. Optimization parameters of the electrospinning process were defined to be 22 kV, 0.6 mL/hr, and 9 cm, respectively. Zeta potential (ZP: 15.06 mV), zeta size (ZS: 397.93 nm), and morphological properties (scanning electron microscopy: <600 nm) of the obtained nanoscale samples were determined. The overall sensory quality of IPN samples was protected better until fifth day of the cold storage. Also, the use of nanoscale material delayed the rapid increase in the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN; p < .05) and in the pH values. Microbial growth (total psychrophilic bacteria count, TPBc) in the IPN samples was found to be 3.98, 4.34, and 5.68 log cfu/g. However, microbial spoilage was determined to be more rapidly in the control group samples during 5-days cold storage period (p < .05). The use of 0.02-g of nanomaterial limited the total psychrophilic bacteria (TPB) growth in fish balls (up to 13%). The results suggested that IPN application would be a promising approach to keep the fish quality. In this sense, the used nanotechnology application in this study can guide other food nanotechnology applications. The use of IPNs delayed the deterioration in fish balls. In the early stages of the storage period, the nanoscale application was more successful to delay the microbiological growth and chemical deterioration. TPBc, TVBN, and especially overall sensory score analysis results revealed the differences between the control group samples and IPN samples. The combination use of nanoparticle and nanofiber in a nanoscale structure could be evaluated as a brilliant application for the further studies in food preservation.