Gifted education in the Republic of Turkey has undergone dramatic changes in recent years. Innovations and regulations in the education of gifted and talented students have emerged and been formed as a result of a global agenda of the country. New steps, such as the establishment of science high schools, have been taken at specific critical points in history. With the beginning of the 21st century, the education of gifted students has gained momentum with the national strategic plan on gifted education and the establishment of gifted education departments in universities. In the last fifteen years, the number of special programs and scientific publications has multiplied. Even though gifted education in Turkey has progressed notably over the years, certain problems still remain unsolved, such as inconsistencies in definitions and contradictions between definitions and practices, inefficiency in nationwide identification, inadequate number of program types, recruitment of untrained teachers and lack of expertise in program development, opposition against gifted education, and insufficiency in scientific studies.