Thymoquinone (TQ) is a plant extract that has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, antimicrobial, and anticarcinogenic effects. The aim of this study is to research how the use of TQ affects flap viability. 42 rats were placed into 6 groups, with 7 rats in each. A 3 x 10 cm McFarlane flap model was used on the test animals. The sham group had used neither surgical nor TQ treatment. The control group had surgery but no treatment afterwards. The preoperative TQ group was given oral doses of 2 mg/kg. TQ for 10 days preoperatively with no treatment after the surgical procedure. The postoperative TQ group received oral doses of 2 mg/kg TQ for 10 days after the surgical process. The preoperative + postoperative (pre + postoperative) TQ group was given oral doses of 2 mg/kg TQ for 10 days both preoperatively and postoperatively. Finally, the dimethylsulfoxide group received 10 mg/kg dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for 10 days both preoperatively and postoperatively. Ten days after surgery the findings were evaluated. The average rates of necrosis were found to be 29.7 % in the control group, 19.18 % in the preoperative TQ group, 13.05 % in the postoperative TQ group, 8.42 % in the pre + postoperative TQ group, and 29.03 % in the DMSO group. The experimental groups had better area measurement, histopathological, and electron microscopic results than the control group (All; p < 0.05). We believe that, because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and angiogenic properties, thymoquinone is an agent that can prevent ischemia-reperfusion damage and, therefore, prevent necrosis.