Thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid diseases associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) may cause difficulties in the diagnosis, localization and therapy of PHPT. In this study, we analysed coexistent thyroid pathologies in 51 patients who underwent neck exploration with a diagnosis of PHPT between 1999-2002. Five hundred thirteen patients who underwent thyroidectomy for nodular thyroid disease without a parathyroid pathology in histopathological examination served as controls. In patients with PHPT there were 43 cases (84.3%) of coexistent thyroid pathology. Nine patients (17.6%) had coexistent papillary thyroid cancer. Nine patients (17.6%) had lymphocytic thyroiditis, two (3.9%) had benign thyroid adenoma and 24 (47%) had nodular hyperplasia. In one patient (2%), there was intrathyroidal metastasis from a parathyroid cancer. One patient had coexistent lymphocytic thyroiditis and multi-focal papillary cancer. One of the two cases with thyroid adenomas was Hurthle cell type. In the control group only 28 patients (5.5%) had thyroid malignancy (27 papillary cancer and one follicular cancer). In conclusion, the coexistent thyroid pathologies are highly prevalent in patients with PHPT and pre- and intra-operative thyroid examination should be performed to avoid overlooking important thyroid pathologies.