Changes in eosinophil granulocytes and mast cells post-insemination may affect conceptus implantation, but information regarding the numbers of such cells in the mammalian reproductive tract is limited. This study investigated the preimplantation distribution of eosinophil granulocytes and mast cells (MCs) in the reproductive tract organs of female goats. Uterus, uterine cervix and uterine tubes samples were obtained at slaughter. Cornu uteri were washed in phosphate buffer solution (each animal contained at least one embryo). Tissues were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formol, Carnoy solution and Mota's fixative (basic lead acetate) for 48 h and embedded in paraffin. Six-micrometre-thick sections were stained with Congo red (for eosinophil granulocytes) and toluidine blue in 1% aqueous solution at pH 1.0 for 5 min (for MCs). In the uterus, MCs occurred in highest numbers in the myometrium. Higher MC numbers were observed in uterus, uterine and uterine tubes in the preimplantation (experimental) group (cycle synchronised through 7 days intravaginal sponge with 0.3 g P-4) compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Eosinophil granulocyte numbers were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (P < 0.05). These results indicate preimplantation-related changes in numbers of eosinophil granulocytes and MCs in goat reproductive tract organs.