In the present study, the testis histology, gonadosomatic index (GSI), germ cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) levels of male Chalcalburnus tarichi were analyzed. According to the histological examinations of the specimens that were caught between February 2009 and January 2010, three testicular stages were determined. Those stages were as follows: (1) recrudescence or prespawning (July-April), (2) spawning (May-June), and (3) postspawning (July). It was observed that the GSI increased gradually, starting from the recrudescence stage, and it reached peak values at the spawning stage, while the lowest values were in the postspawning. Germ cell proliferation in the testis was detected using a proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and germ cell apoptosis was detected by transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining. The germ cell PCNA and apoptosis index values were calculated. It was indicated that germ cell proliferation was observed in all of the testicular stages. The highest germ cell PCNA index (PI) levels were detected in July, August, and September, which then dropped in October and stabilized between February and April. The lowest PI values were detected in the spawning stage (May-June). Germ cell apoptosis was observed in all of the months, and the highest apoptotic index values were detected in August, September, October, May, and June. Plasma 11-KT and T levels were at their highest levels in May and June, and it was detected as stabile in the other months. There was a correlation between GSI, PI, and plasma androgen levels. In conclusion, the present data illustrate testicular development stages for C. tarichi and show changes in the level of GSI and sex steroid biosynthesis through spermatogenesis.