A critical mini-review on challenge of gaseous O3 toward removal of viral bioaerosols from indoor air based on collision theory

Kakaei K., Padervand M., Akınay Y., Dawi E., Ashames A., Saleem L., ...More

Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.30, no.36, pp.84918-84932, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 36
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-023-28402-2
  • Journal Name: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.84918-84932
  • Keywords: Bioaerosol, Collision theory, Disinfection, Half-life, Indoor air, Ozone
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


COVID-19, a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome diseases, led to significant social, economic, psychological, and public health impacts. It was not only uncontrolled but caused serious problems at the outbreak time. Physical contact and airborne transmission are the main routes of transmission for bioaerosols such as SARS-CoV-2. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO), surfaces should be disinfected with chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite, and quaternary compounds, while wearing masks, maintaining social distance, and ventilating are strongly recommended to protect against viral aerosols. Ozone generators have gained much attention for purifying public places and workplaces’ atmosphere, from airborne bioaerosols, with specific reference to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. Despite the scientific concern, some bioaerosols, such as SARS-CoV-2, are not inactivated by ozone under its standard tolerable concentrations for human. Previous reports did not consider the ratio of surface area to volume, relative humidity, temperature, product of time in concentration, and half-life time simultaneously. Furthermore, the use of high doses of exposure can seriously threaten human health and safety since ozone is shown to have a high half-life at ambient conditions (several hours at 55% of relative humidity). Herein, making use of the reports on ozone physicochemical behavior in multiphase environments alongside the collision theory principles, we demonstrate that ozone is ineffective against a typical bioaerosol, SARS-CoV-2, at nonharmful concentrations for human beings in air. Ozone half-life and its durability in indoor air, as major concerns, are also highlighted in particular. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]