Patency rates of autologous arteriovenous fistulae in patients with end-stage renal failure constitute a serious problem. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of early stage blood pressure values on fistula patency in patients with autologous arteriovenous fistulae (AVF). Sixty-six patients with end-stage renal failure who were scheduled for autologous arteriovenous fistula were prospectively enrolled in the study. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were taken for a period of 24 h following the operation. At the end of the first month, patients were evaluated for fistula patency. Higher AVF thrombosis (p = 0.039) was found in patients with high postoperative systolic blood pressure (> 140 mmHg), while higher rates of fistula patency (p = 0.014) where observed in patients with diastolic blood pressure below 80 mmHg. Early-stage low diastolic and normal systolic (< 140 mmHg) blood pressure values were found to have a positive effect on AVF patency. This situation suggests that in patients with arteriovenous fistula formation, rates of fistula patency can be increased with close monitoring and strict control of blood pressure.