© 2019 Friends Science Publishers.Rheum ribes L. (wild rhubarb) is one of the less known plants to the world and the only species from the Rheum genus present in Turkey. In this study, one R. rhabarbarum (as check genotype) and 80 R. ribes genotypes were collected from different geographical locations of Turkey for the investigation of diversity and genetic structure using ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) and SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats) markers. SSR markers reflected higher (100%) polymorphism as compared to the ISSR marker. However, ISSR markers produced higher average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value (0.805) than the SSR markers (0.724). A Similar range of (PIC) values with ISSR markers was found greater (0.935-0.395) as compared to the range of SSR makers (0.88-0.47). Using Jaccard similarity index, genetic distance was measured for both markers and average genetic distance was found to be higher with ISSR markers as compared to the SSR markers. Neighbor-joining analysis clustered genotypes into 3 groups for both marker systems. During this study some distinct genotypes like R. rhabarbarum, YYUERC19, YYUERC09 and YYUMER65 were investigated that can be used as candidate parents for the development of R. ribes L. varieties. Structure analysis grouped the genotypes according to altitude by clustering genotypes having at more than 2000 m in one group and genotypes less than 2000 m altitude in another group. Genetic variations observed in this study can be applied to investigate various traits of interest for the R. ribes L. breeding.