e-Turkish Studies (elektronik), cilt.10, ss.835-850, 2015 (Diğer Kurumların Hakemli Dergileri)
Osmanlı devleti, 1839 yılında ilan edilen Tanzimat Fermanı ile birlikte yüzünü, yüzyıllar boyu hep kendisinden geri olan ve kendisine korkuyla karışık hayranlık duyan, Batıya çevirmek zorunda kalır. Tanzimat reformları, askeri, idari ve ekonomik alanların yanında, imparatorluğun geleneksel yapısında, şehirlerdeki yaşam biçiminde ve düşünce dünyasında önemli değişimleri başlatır. Yazarlar, olayları kurgusal olarak anlatırken, toplumsal yapının geleneksel yapı ile batıllılaşma arasında sıkışıp kaldığını, bir ikilem içinde bulunduğunu gösterdiklerinden, her üç romanda da o günün toplum yapısı görülür. Bu yüzden hem batı hayranı ailelerdeki, ailede her şeyin maddiyatla ölçülmesi, aile bireyleri arasındaki kopukluk, hem de o dönemdeki hovardalık, gece hayatı, eğlence mekânları, marka ve moda tutkusu gibi olguların yanında resmi dairelerdeki çalışma şeklinin başıboşluğuna da değinilir. Dönemin yazarları, kadının toplum içindeki statüsünü değişen şartlar doğrultusunda sorgulayarak, kadın olmanın zorluğu, kadınların toplumdaki genel durumu, evlilikte geleneksel ve modern düşüncelerin varlığı, cariyelik olayının yaygınlığını roman anlatımıyla rahatça vermişlerdir. Her üç yazar da, eserlerinde, dönemin yaşam tarzı ile ilgili bilgiler verirken, yaşanan bir uygarlık değişimi olduğundan, eski ile yeni arasında karşılaştırmalar yaparlar. Topluma yön verme amacında olan yazarlar eserlerinde, en büyük sorun olarak gördükleri eğitimsizlik, yanlış batılılaşma gibi konuları işlerler. Romanların ışığında dönemin genel yapısına bakıldığında, Tanzimat dönemiyle birlikte ortaya çıkan toplumdaki dönüşümün, Batı karşısındaki gerilemenin zorunlu kıldığı, devletin yönlendirdiği bir hareket olduğu görülür.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Aile, Kültür, Eğitim, Batlılaşma, Yaşam, Değişim, Modernleşme
After the declaration of Tanzimat in 1839, Ottoman State had to turn its face to the West that for centuries fall behind and feared with awe. Besides the military, administrative and economic areas, Tanzimat reforms launched major changes in the empire's traditional structure, way of life in the city and way of thinking. As the authors recount events as fiction, the three novels depict social structure of the era; social structure is trapped between westernization and tradition and has a dilemma. The three novels tell about western fan families in which everything is measured in materialist values, disconnection between family members and nightlife, entertainment venues, brand and fashion passion and corruption in the state offices. The authors of the period had questioned women's changing conditions according to the status in the society, the difficulty of being a woman, the overall situation of women in society, the existence of traditional and modern thought on marriage and gave freely with the novelistic expression of the prevalence of concubinage case. All three authors in their works, while giving information about the lifestyle of the period, as there is a change of civilization, they make comparisons between new and old. The authors aim to give direction to the society with their works; they see lack of education and wrong westernization as the major problems. When we look at the overall structure of the period in the light of the novels, transformation emerging in the society with the Tanzimat period is seen as necessity by the decline across the West directed by the state.
Western world through cheap or free materials and rich resources of the earth that carried from the new found territories with geographical exploration or colonization, seeking continuous innovation in the previous century, military and scientific discoveries, showing that the world's center of economic power has strengthened against the Ottoman Empire, with the new industrial revolution the West has managed to be the centre of the world. Thus Western civilization emerged superior to other civilizations and began to be an example and imitated in all areas. Ottoman Empire, have to go to westernization through centuries in the part of the social structure that creates confidence and experience in itself. Why the Ottoman empire did not allow changes in society to be fast, in addition to the dynamics of society against this response, changes misunderstood by some people as superficial, it is seen as the changes did not filled with science and technology.
Westernization, mainly discussed through French literature, and culture. In the novels representing Westernization ‘Felatun Bey ile Rakım Efendi’and ‘Araba Sevdası’ the characters Felatun and Bihruz Bey places French words between the sentences, this shows that when comes to Westernization France came to the mind of the writer. In Bihruz Bey, the sentences contains to many French words that they cannot be
understood, the French influence in ‘Araba Sevdası’ is much more than the other novels as they were writtten later.
The authors recounting events as fictional, they mention the traditional structure of social form. So we see that the society of the day in all three novels. The minorities are told to work as a maid at home, involved in trade, dress in different styles and live in harmony with society. When Turkish hospitality described in fiction, it is compared with Western civilization and culture. When some unaware intellectuals criticized, a hero is shown as spendthrift. Novels tell about western fan families in which everything is measured in materialist values, disconnection between family members and nightlife, entertainment venues, brand and fashion passion and corruption in the state offices.
In all three novels about the Westernization, the state of the Ottoman society in the second half of the 19th century and the changes are visible. Unconscionable expenditures made by the state despite being in debt-ridden, is given as an analogy with the spendthrifts in the novels. Traditional structure of Ottoman society, appear to be located in a dilemma beginning to emerge from Eighteenth century increasing with the Tanzimat period and even continued to accelerate in the later periods. Characters such as Felatun and Bihruz represent a protest against the family's domination of the young, their presence because of the western wannabes, glorification of the West and imitating blindly cultural aspects of the Western civilization. Characters like Tütüncü Hacı baba shows traditional structure. But characters such as Rakım represent the structure which believes in tradition and volues and open to innovation in Westernization process. According to the Tanzimat intellectuals, besides Western science and developments, literary and cultural aspects of the West must also be followed. The common purpose of the Authors is to show the posibility of civiliziation without leaving one's own culture, values, traditions and without destruction religion and traditions. Because all these are a change in civilization.
Overall criticism of the novels shows the importance of quality of education, ignorance easily direct people to the wrong side and the importance of culture. As the state is the larger form of family, the durability of the family is regarded as equivalent strength. If westernization becomes unmoderate colonial status occurs. Traditional values are compared to western values, our own values are shown superior, and it is told that westernisation should be parellel science and development. Change is a whole, difficulties of changes and westernisation and how they are perceived in different parts of society is shown. The authors ask the society to harmonize the tradition and the modern.
Key Words: Family, Culture, Education, Westernization, Life, Change, Modernization