Our field research in Van province during 2008-2009 resulted in collection of 3766 lichen samples from 55 sites, and identification of 229 lichen taxa, including two subspecies and three varieties, in 108 genera of Ascomycota. We found 182 new records for Van province. These include four new records for Turkey, namely Bibbya ruginosa, Buellia subalbula, Caloplaca tenuatula and Rimularia gibbosa. Lists of species and collection sites are provided. Acarospora (11 species), Lecidea (9 species), Verrucaria (8 species), Caloplaca, Physcia and Rinodina (7 species for each), and Aspicilia, Lecanora and Polyozosia (6 species for each) are the genera richest in species in the study area. Of the identified species, 163 are crustose, 43 are foliose, 7 are fruticose, 13 are squamulose and 3 are leprose. 101 species colonise on calcareous rocks, 86 on siliceous rocks, 23 on various trees (epiphytic), 10 on soil, 12 on moss and 17 on other lichens (lichenicolous). Sites 16, 19 are the richest with 55 identified taxa, followed by sites 52, 34, and 6 with 51, 49 and 44 taxa, respectively. The poorest sites are 40 and 42 with 6 identified taxa, followed by sites 5, 7, and 21 with 8, 8, and 9 taxa, respectively.