Online learners’ interactions and social anxiety: the social anxiety scale for e-learning environments (SASE)

Keskin S., Şahin M., Uluç S., Yurdugül H.

Interactive Learning Environments, vol.0, pp.1-13, 2020 (SSCI)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 0
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/10494820.2020.1769681
  • Journal Name: Interactive Learning Environments
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Applied Science & Technology Source, Computer & Applied Sciences, EBSCO Education Source, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), INSPEC, Psycinfo
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-13
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


Social sharing in virtual learning environments differs from real environments, resulting in a need for a specialized data collection tool related to social anxiety in these environments. This study seeks to develop a scale to identify the levels of social anxiety experienced in elearning. The study group consists of 275 students who have previously experienced an online or a blended learning environment. The data were analyzed through exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, convergent and divergent validity tests. The interpersonal interactions of learners in online environments were considered in developing the tool. Two subscale forms were created to identify the levels of social anxiety in learner-learner interaction and learnerinstructor interaction. Each subscale of the Social Anxiety Scale for ELearning Environments (SASE) consists of 23 items and three subfactors. These sub-factors are called negative evaluation, somatic symptoms and avoidance of interaction. The analyses indicate that the SASE is a reliable and valid measurement tool useful for assessing the social anxiety levels of online learners.