Silene acaulis (L.) Jacq. subsp. vanensis Ozgokce & Kit Tan (Caryophyllaceae), a new taxon occurring in the province of Van in East Anatolia, Turkey, is described and illustrated. Its closest affinities are with S. acaulis subsp. bryoides, a plant occurring more than 2000 km away in the mountains of central and southern Europe. The existence of a new subspecies of S. acaulis in the extremely disjunct locality is interesting from a phytogeographical viewpoint. It is possible that during the post-glacial period the present-day Arctic-Alpine flora migrated not only southwards to the mountains of central and southern Europe but also to the highlands of eastern Turkey.