Evaluation of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in smokers and Maras powder users

Keten H. S. , Onay H., Ersoy O., Isik O., Gencoglan S., Ucer H., ...More

NORDIC JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, vol.69, no.7, pp.557-562, 2015 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 69 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.3109/08039488.2015.1018320
  • Page Numbers: pp.557-562


Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate adult attention defi cit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in smokers, Maras powder users and non-users of tobacco products by using the Adult Attention Defi cit and Hyperactivity Disorder Self-report Scale (ASRS). Methods: The study was performed on 446 males presenting to family health centers in Kahramanmara, Turkey. Of 446 participants, 104 were Maras powder users, 133 were smokers and 209 were volunteers not using any tobacco products. Data were collected with a questionnaire composed of questions about socio-demographic features and features of smoking and Maras powder use, and the Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Scale and the ASRS. P < 0.05 was considered signifi cant. Results: The mean age of the participants was 33.94 +/- 10.68 years (min = 18, max = 64). There was no signifi cant difference in age between the study groups (P = 0.089). Thirty-one participants (7.0%) received scores higher than the cut-off value (>= 14 points) for the short form of the ASRS. Twenty-one participants (4.7%) achieverd scores higher than the cut-off value (>= 44 points) for the ASRS. The smokers received the highest scores of 8.42 +/- 3.79 for all the subscales of the short version of the ASRS, 26.87 +/- 10.46 for the ASRS, 12.57 +/- 6.47 for the attention defi cit subscale and 14.30 +/- 5.35 for the hyperactivity and impulsivity subscale. Conclusion: Higher rates of the smokers and the Maras powder users had symptoms of ADHD. Considering nicotine may decrease symptoms of ADHD, it can be assumed that the rates of the smokers and Maras powder users with ADHD are higher.