In this study, protective effects of lithium borate (LTB) on spermatogenesis as well as histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of testes in experimentally induced acute Cadmium (Cd) toxicity in rats were determined. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, were used, weighing 200-220 g. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Control, Cd, LTB, and LTB + Cd. Rats were anesthetized with ketamine at the end of the sixth day, blood was taken from their hearts, and the rats were decapitated. Typically, the control and LTB groups exhibited similar values. Compared with those observed for the control group, the sperm morphology (i.e. abnormal sperm count) increased for the Cd group, while the FSH, LH, total testosterone levels, sperm motility, and density decreased in a statistically significant manner. Clearly, no adverse effects of LTB on the sperm motility, density, and sperm morphology (i.e. abnormal sperm count) were observed, but LTB decreased the negative effects of Cd toxicity. Abnormal disturbances in the head and tail areas of the sperms increased; thus, the total abnormal sperm rate increases, leading to the decreased fertilization capacity. The histopathological examination of testicular tissues revealed severe haemorrhage and hyperaemia in intertubular intervals, tubule atrophy, severe degenerative and necrotic changes in spermatocytes, tubule wall thinning, and necrosis in basal germ cells. In immunohistochemically Caspase-3, 8-OHdG, and COX-2 staining, changes in the control and LTB groups were not detected, while the Cd toxicity group exhibited severe expression in the testis tissue. Histopathological and immunohistochemical changes were significantly decreased in the LTB + Cd group compared to the Cd group. In conclusion, in this study it was determined that LTB has protective effects on Cd-induced testicular toxicity in rats.