In this article, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of methanol extract of of Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd. (CME) were studied using WP2, Ames (TA1535 and TA1537), and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test systems. The results of our studies showed that 5 mu M concentration of aflatoxin B-1(AFB(1)) changed the frequencies of SCE and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. When 5 and 10 mu g/mL concentrations of CME was added to AFB(1), the frequencies of SCE and MDA level were decreased and SOD, GSH, and GPx levels were increased. The extract CME did not show any mutagenicity on Ames (Salmonella typhimurium TA1535, TA1537) and WP2 (Escherichia coli) test systems. On the other hand, CME has antimutagenicity on the mentioned test systems. The results of this experiment have clearly shown that CME has a significant antioxidative and antigenotoxic effect, which is thought to be due to the antigenotoxic activities of antioxidant enzymes.