Taking into consideration of substantial role of energy system and sustainable development goals (SDGs) in modern society, it is critical to analyse current situation and forthcoming renewable energy development strategies under the impact of COVID-19. For this purpose, this paper provides significant new insights to assess effective approaches, opportunities, challenges and future potential capabilities for the development of energy systems and SDGs under on-going pandemic and in case of a future global crisis. The digital energy systems with Industry 4.0 (I4.0), which provide noteworthy solutions such as enhancing energy efficiency policy, providing clean, secure and efficient energy and achieving SDG targets, has been discussed and evaluated. Integration of the smart grid (SG) architecture with blockchain-Internet of Things (IoT)-based technologies is also offered. Alongside the various discussions, short-term, mid-term and long-term plans have been suggested in determining the well-defined renewable energy development and SDGs targets, struggling with climate change, transition to a more sustainable energy future and reaching global net-zero emissions. To achieve SDGs and provide more strong and sustainable energy systems under the continuing pandemic and in case of potential risk of forthcoming global crisis, this paper reveals significant perceptions that inform politicians and legislators in performing successful policy decisions.