OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a common disorder that affects the nervous systems of 1% of worldwide population. In epilepsy, one-third of patients are unresponsive to current drug therapies and develop drug-resistant epilepsy. Alterations in ghrelin, nesfatin-1, and irisin levels with epilepsy were reported in previous studies. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is among the most common neuropeptides in the hippocampus, which is the focus of the seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy. However, there is also lack of evidence of whether these four neuropeptide levels are altered with drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy or not. The aim herein was the evaluation of the serum levels of nesfatin-1, ghrelin, irisin, and Vasoactive intestinal peptide in drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) without drug resistance, and to compare them to healthy controls.