What is the impact and efficacy of routine immunological, biochemical and hematological biomarkers as predictors of COVID-19 mortality?

HUYUT M. T., Huyut Z., İLKBAHAR F., Mertoglu C.

INTERNATIONAL IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY, vol.105, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 105
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.intimp.2022.108542
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: COVID-19, Mortality risk indicators, Routine laboratory characteristics, Hypercoagulation, Leukocytosis, Erythrocytopenia
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


It remains important to investigate the changing and impact of routine blood values (RBVs) in order to predict mortality and follow an appropriate treatment in COVID-19 patients. In the study, the importance of RBVs in the mortality of patients with COVID-19 was investigated. The changes in the biochemical, hematological, and immunological parameters of patients who recovered (n = 4364) and died (n = 233) from COVID-19 over time and their relationship with the mortality of the disease were evaluated retrospectively. Odds ratios of the parameters affecting one-month mortality were calculated by running multiple-logistic-regression analysis. The cut off values and diagnostic efficiencies of the parameters that posed a risk for mortality were obtained via receiver operating curve analysis. It was determined that the C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, procalcitonin, erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate (ESR), troponin values were at abnormal levels until death occurred in the patients who died. In addition, the procalcitonin levels were consistently high in patients who died. The patients who died generally had a sustained increase in their leukocyte and neutrophil levels and biochemical variables, and an ongoing decrease in lymphopenia and eosinopenia levels. Although significant changes were observed in liver function tests, cardiac troponin, hemogram values, kidney function tests and parameters related to inflammation in deceased patients, high ESR, international-normalized-ratio (INR), prothrombin-time (PT), CRP, D-dimer, ferritin and red-cell-distribution width (RDW) values, respectively, were the most effective predictive mortality risk biomarkers of COVID-19. In addition, neutrophilia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, erythrocytopenia were other risk predictors of mortality. Indicators was found in this study can be successfully used to predict mortality from COVID-19.