Molecular emission lines are essential tools to shed light on many questions regarding star formation in galaxies. Multiple molecular lines are particularly useful to probe different phases of star-forming molecular clouds. In this study, we investigate the physical properties of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) using multiple lines of CO, i.e. CO(1–0, 2–1, 3–2) and 13CO(1–0), obtained at selected 20 positions in the disc of NGC 0628. A total of 11 positions were selected over the radial cut, including the centre, and remaining 9 positions were selected across the southern and northern arms of the galaxy. A total of 13 out of 20 positions are brighter at 24μm and ultraviolet (UV) emission and hosting significantly more H II regions compared to the rest of the positions indicating opposite characteristics. Our line ratio analysis shows that the gas gets warmer and thinner as a function of radius from the galaxy centre up to 1.7 kpc, and then the ratios start to fluctuate. Our empirical and model results suggest that the UV-bright positions have colder and thinner CO gas with higher hydrogen and CO column densities. However, the UV-dim positions have relatively warmer CO gas with lower densities bathed in GMCs surrounded by less number of H II regions. Analysis of multiwavelength infrared and UV data indicates that the UV-bright positions have higher star formation efficiency than that of the UV-dim positions.