© 2022, Yuzuncu Yil Universitesi Tip Fakultesi. All rights reserved.Several factors increase the risk of postoperative infection. Some experimental studies have shown that silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have a protective effect from surgical infection. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of AgNP in preventing the development of infection in the spinal stabilization rat model. In this study, 32 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300–350 g were used. Subjects were randomly divided into four groups. Titanium screws were placed in the spine in all groups. In Groups 2, 3, and 4, S.aureus and P.aeruginosa were cultivated in the surgical site at a concentration of 106 CFU/10 μL. Additionally, 0.5 mg/kg AgNP in maltose solution in Group 3 and maltose solution in Group 4 were used. The histopathological examinations were then done. In the fascia, muscle, bone, and screws in all groups, except in Group 1 (control group), S. aureus and P.aeruginosa reproduced. In blood cultures, there was growth of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa in 1 subject in Group 2, 6 subjects in Group 3, and 2 subjects in Group 4. The growth of S. aureus and P.aeruginosa was significantly i ncreased in Group 3. The degree of inflammation was significantly lower in Group 1. No accumulation of silver was detected in any organs histopathologically. Application of 1 eucal AgNP decreased the severity of infection. This dose was not toxic. However, administration of AgNP at this dose did not decrease the local infection rate. Therefore, new studies should be conducted to determine the ideal effective dose.