Macro and micromorphological study on fruit (disseminule) of the genus Gundelia L. (Asteraceae) with new evidence

Fırat M., Selvi S.

Acta Biologica Turcica, vol.36, no.1, pp.1-63, 2023 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Journal Name: Acta Biologica Turcica
  • Journal Indexes: TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-63
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, fruits (ripe disseminules) of 22 taxa of the genus Gundelia defined

in the world were studied. Fifteen of these species are endemic to Turkey, there is 1

endemic species in Iran and 1 endemic species in Armenia. For the first time, fruit (ripe

disseminule) shapes, macro and micromorphological characters of all species were

compared in detail. While showing the shapes of the fruit (ripe disseminule) of each

species, 25 different fruit (ripe disseminule) were selected considering all variations. In the

micromorphological studies, the fruit (ripe disseminule) surface of the genus was studied

for the first time in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). While the fruit (ripe

disseminule) base and middle surfaces of the genus are rugose, striate, reticulate, and

scalariform; the spines show striate and ruminate ornamentations. Anomocytic type

stomata were observed for the first time in the spins of all taxa examined. No stomata was

found in the reduced structure (pappus) in all of the members of the Asteraceae family. On

the other hand, the presence of stomata was detected in the reduced structure spines of

Gundelia genus. According to the morphological and micromorphological characters

obtained, G. vitekii and G. tenuisecta; G. microcephala and G. purpurascens, and G. dersim

with G. armata taxa were found to be very close to each other. In addition; A dendrogram is

constructed as a result of the cluster analysis of the examined taxa of Gundelia based on the

variation of fruit (ripe disseminule) characters in 22 taxa. The average weight of seeds of

each species is given (25 variations). The fruit (ripe disseminule) details, general views and

synflorescence flowers of all the Gundelia taxa in the world are given together for the first

time. Also, a dichotomous key is provided first time for the identification of the examined

species based on fruit (ripe disseminule) characters.