Revealing Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Türkiye’s Wheat Germplasm Using iPBS-Retrotransposon Markers

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Demirel F., Yıldırım B., Eren B., Demirel S., Türkoğlu A., HALİLOĞLU K., ...More

Agronomy, vol.14, no.2, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/agronomy14020300
  • Journal Name: Agronomy
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: genetic diversity, germplasm, interprimer binding site, Tiriticum monococcum, Triticum dicoccum, wheat
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


Investigating the genetic diversity and population structure of wheat germplasm is crucial for understanding the underlying variability essential for breeding programs and germplasm preservation. This research aims to contribute novel insights with respect to the genetic makeup and relationships among these wheat genotypes, shedding light on the diversity present within the Turkish wheat germplasm. In this study, iPBS-retrotransposon markers were employed to analyze 58 wheat genotypes, encompassing 54 landraces and 4 cultivars sourced from Türkiye. These markers serve as genetic indicators that can be used to evaluate genetic variation, build genealogical trees, and comprehend evolutionary connections. The PCR products were visualized on agarose gel, and bands were scored as present/absent. The ten iPBS primers collectively yielded an average of 16.3 alleles, generating a total of 163 polymorphic bands. The number of alleles produced by individual markers ranged from 4 (iPBS-2386) to 29 (iPBS-2219). The genetic parameters were calculated using the popgen and powermarker programs. The genetic relationships and population structures were assessed using the ntsys and structure programs. Polymorphism information content (PIC) per marker varied from 0.13 (iPBS-2390) to 0.29 (iPBS-2386), with an average value of 0.22. Shannon’s information index (I) was calculated as 1.48, while the number of effective alleles (Ne) and Nei’s genetic diversity (H) were determined to be 0.26 and 0.31, respectively. Genotype numbers 3 (Triticum dicoccum) and 10 (Triticum monococcum) exhibited the maximum genetic distance of 0.1292, signifying the highest genetic disparity. Population structure analysis revealed the segregation of genotypes into three distinct subpopulations. Notably, a substantial portion of genotypes clustered within populations correlated with the wheat species. This population structure result was consistent with the categorization of genotypes based on wheat species. The comprehensive assessment revealed noteworthy insights with respect to allele distribution, polymorphism content, and population differentiation, offering valuable implications for wheat breeding strategies and germplasm conservation efforts. In addition, the iPBS markers and wheat genotypes employed in this study hold significant potential for applications in wheat breeding research and germplasm preservation.