INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.41, no.5, pp.569-576, 2006 (SCI-Expanded)
Wafers are low-moisture-baked foods. They are formed from a batter and baked between hot plates. The quality of wafer sheets is mainly controlled by flour property, water level and temperature, mixing action, baking time and temperature. The quality is judged by attributes of the batter such as the density, viscosity, holding time and temperature, and by properties of the wafer such as weight, surface colour, fragility and moisture content. In this study, the batter-specific gravity of 1.11-1.19 was recorded. Water and gluten content did not affect density. Water level, but not gluten content, however affected viscosity. Batter holding time drastically changed viscosity. The temperature of plates did significantly affect bake time. For wafer sheets with a high quality, 155-165% water level, 170 degrees C baking temperature and 2 min of bake time were found to be adequate. Wafer sheets baked at the lower temperatures stuck to the plates and broke up to several pieces. At a lower water level (< 145%) and baking temperature of 150 degrees C, tough and flinty sheets were obtained, whereas at a water level higher than 160% and a higher temperature (190 degrees C), fragile sheets were obtained.