Enhanced Sintering of TiNi Shape Memory Foams under Mg Vapor Atmosphere

Aydoğmuş T. , Bor S.

METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, sa.13, ss.5173-5181, 2012 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: Konu: 13
  • Basım Tarihi: 2012
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1007/s11661-012-1350-y
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.5173-5181


TiNi alloy foams are promising candidates for biomaterials to be used as artificial orthopedic implant materials for bone replacement applications in biomedical sector. However, certain problems exist in their processing routes, such as formation of unwanted secondary intermetallic phases leading to brittleness and deterioration of shape memory and superelasticity characteristics; and the contamination during processing resulting in oxides and carbonitrides which affect mechanical properties negatively. Moreover, the eutectic reaction present in Ti-Ni binary system at 1391 K (1118 A degrees C) prevents employment of higher sintering temperatures (and higher mechanical properties) even when equiatomic prealloyed powders are used because of Ni enrichment of TiNi matrix as a result of oxidation. It is essential to prevent oxidation of TiNi powders during processing for high-temperature (> 1391 K i.e., 1118 A degrees C) sintering practices. In the current study, magnesium powders were used as space holder material to produce TiNi foams with the porosities in the range of 40 to 65 pct. It has been found that magnesium prevents secondary phase formation and contamination. It also prevents liquid phase formation while enabling employment of higher sintering temperatures by two-step sintering processing: holding the sample at 1373 K (1100 A degrees C) for 30 minutes, and subsequently sintering at temperatures higher than the eutectic temperature, 1391 K (1118 A degrees C). By this procedure, magnesium may allow sintering up to temperatures close to the melting point of TiNi. TiNi foams produced with porosities in the range of 40 to 55 pct were found to be acceptable as implant materials in the light of their favorable mechanical properties.