The aim of this study was to investigate sociodemographic factors that affect self-esteem in two culturally diverse cities of Turkey. A total of 860 subjects selected by stratified random sampling method were included. Sociodemogruphic characteristics, self-esteem, depression levels, perceived loneliness, support levels and anxiety levels were investigated. Self-esteem was found to be negatively related to depression. Situational and continuous anxiety levels were found to be positively related to perceived social and family support levels. Only education level was found to have a direct effect on self-esteem. The level of income, family structure, number of siblings and the province of residence were found to have an indirect effect on self-esteem. The self-esteem of inhabitants of the western city of Izmir was higher and determined mainly by education and financial levels.