The Prophet Noah, the Flood Based on the Qurānic Revelation, the History Accounts and Archaeological Excavations

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Aydın H.

Journal of İslamic Studies and Culture, vol.8, pp.27-33, 2020 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)


Bedihiyyat (Reality) is an important topic in Qur‟ānic interpretation. Some of the commentators have conveyed many irrational and contradictory things as they interpret the Qur‟ān without observing reality. One of them is the comments about the flood and the ark of Noah. The Islamic scholars and commentators who took advantage of the information in the Torah say that the flood is all over the earth and the earth is filled with water and the ship descends on Ararat (Ağrı). Today's archaeological studies are generally carried out on these mountains based on the information in the Torah. However, this thought is both geologically irrational and contradicted with the universal principle of the Qur‟ān "No bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another. We will not punish unless we send a prophet"(al-Isrāʾ 17/15) Despite the great and long struggle of Noah they did not accept the invitation of Noah and thus were being destroyed by the flood. Already the Torah‟s which in circulation were written after the deportation of Jews to Mesopotamia famous for the exile of Babylon. In this period (BC. 586) Jerusalem was burned down by Nebuchadnezzar (BC. 605-562) and those who knew the Torah were slaughtered. Many mythological and wrong things and the expression of Ararat are thought to have entered the Torah during this period. Today, some Western researchers suggest that the Mount Judī, which the Qur‟ān points to, is the best and right choice for where the ship landed, and they suggest that it is necessary to excavate here for the remains of the ship. Al-Kalbī, who gives information about the gods and beliefs of the Jahiliyya period, states in the Book that the deities of Noah‟s people are worshiped in various parts of the Arabian Peninsula. In fact, archaeological excavations in these regions are confirmed with this. Both Islamic sources and archaeological excavations indicate that the Flood event took place in Mesopotamia. Based on this information and materials, we can tell that the place where the Noah people lived is Mosul and its surroundings. Al-Kalbī, who gives information about the gods and beliefs of the Jahiliyya period in his Kitāb al-Aṣnām, is mentioned that some of the gods worshiped in various parts of the Arabian Peninsula are the gods of the Noah people. The fact that Noah had lived in this region is almost evident. As a matter of fact, archaeological excavations in various ancient cities of Mesopotamia confirmed this information and it was understood that Noah was a prophet sent to the people in this region. At the same time, these findings indicate that the flood event took place in Mesopotamia in the late Sumerians in the end of the four thousand BC and the beginning of the three thousand BC, in the pursuit of the eighth king of this state. In this way, the determination of Noah's presence and the flood has made a great sense in the history of religions. Because Noah is the oldest prophet of mankind's history, the clear transmission of divine messages to society began with him. “When Our command came and the oven overflowed, we said, “Load upon it (i.e the ship) of each (creature) two mates and your family, except those about whom the Word (i.e decree) has preceded, and (include)whoever has believed. „But none had believed in him, except a few” (Nūḥ 11/40). It can be said from the verse that very few people boarded the ship. “Load upon it… each (creature) two mates” although in this case it is interpreted as get a pair from each of the living species, this is not true and contrary to reality. Because it is appreciated that it is impossible to take a couple of animals from every animal in the world. In our opinion, this expression can be interpreted in two ways: First, it is meant pairs of animals needed. These animals are also pets that will help their ship survive the flood and give them milk and eggs. Couples are ram, sheep, lodge, goat, hen and rooster animals. Or, as Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī stressed it is meant the couples that are ordered by God to Noah to be loaded onto the ship. The Islamic scholar believes that the place where the ship landed was the Judī Mountain in Jizra. It was rumoured that some of the Muslims in the early periods of Islam saw the remains of this ship. Some 1 Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Divinity Faculty (Tafsir) VAN /TURKEY Hayati Aydın 19 historical narrations and archaeological findings support this. The fact that the Flood event is determined in historical information and archaeological materials reveals that the stories of the Qur‟ān are not myths but they are pure historical fact. In addition, it is understood that this narrative is known in a wide geography and narration of similar events is through prophets and divine messages and it is widely inspired by the myths and legends of nations. In the Sumerian The Flood Noah was called as Ziusudra (the Longevity Person) and Babylon Gilgamesh epic as Ut-napiştim (Living a Life) as the Qur‟ān says it can be said that Noah's life was beyond normal, different from his peers and had a miraculous life. In this respect, examining the reality of Noah and the Flood and determining the truth is a very important issue. Our article aims to discuss and reach the conclusion of the Flood event, the place where the Flood took place, and the religious texts, Islamic culture and archaeological findings related to Noah's ark, the people who boarded him and the ark.