Usage of Machine Learning Algorithms for Establishing an Effective Protocol for the In Vitro Micropropagation Ability of Black Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott)

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Demirel F., Uğur R., Popescu G. C., Demirel S., Popescu M.

Horticulturae, vol.9, no.10, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/horticulturae9101112
  • Journal Name: Horticulturae
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Aronia, artificial intelligence, basal media, modeling, optimizing, predicting, SVM, XGBoost
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


The primary objective of this research was to ascertain the optimal circumstances for the successful growth of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott) using tissue culture techniques. Additionally, the study aimed to explore the potential use of machine learning algorithms in this context. The present research investigated a range of in vitro parameters such as total number of roots (TNR), longest root length (LRL), average root length (ARL), number of main roots (NMR), number of siblings (NS), shoot length (SL), shoot diameter (SD), leaf width (LW), and leaf length (LL) for Aronia explants cultivated in different media (Murashige and Skoog (MS) and woody plant medium (WPM)) with different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mg L−1) of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The study showed that IBA hormone levels may affect WPM properties, affecting the LRL and ARL variables. Aronia explant media treated with 2 mg L−1 IBA had the greatest TNR, NMR, NS, SL, and SD values; 31.67 pieces, 2.37 pieces, 5.25 pieces, 66.60 mm, and 2.59 mm, in that order. However, Aronia explants treated with 1 mg L−1 IBA had the highest LW (9.10 mm) and LL (14.58 mm) values. Finally, Aronia explants containing 0.5 mg L−1 IBA had the greatest LRL (89.10 mm) and ARL (57.57 mm) values. In general, the results observed (TNR, LRL, ARL, NMR, NS, SL, SD, LW, and LL) indicate that Aronia explants exhibit superior growth and development in WPM (25.68 pieces, 68.10 mm, 51.64 mm, 2.17 pieces, 4.33 pieces, 57.95 mm, 2.49 mm, 8.08 mm, and 14.26 mm, respectively) as opposed to MS medium (20.27 pieces, 59.92 mm, 47.25 mm, 1.83 pieces, 3.57 pieces, 49.34 mm, 2.13 mm, 6.99 mm, and 12.21 mm, respectively). In the context of the in vitro culturing of Aronia explants utilizing MS medium and WPM, an analysis of machine learning models revealed that the XGBoost and SVM models perform better than the RF, KNN, and GP models when it comes to making predictions about those variables. In particular, the XGBoost model stood out due to the fact that it had the greatest R-squared value, and showed higher predictive ability in terms of properly forecasting values in comparison to actual outcomes. The findings of a linear regression (LR) analysis were used in order to conduct an efficacy study of the XGBoost model. The LR results especially confirmed the findings for the SD, NS, and NMR variables, whose R-squared values were more than 0.7. This demonstrates the extraordinary accuracy that XGboost has in predicting these particular variables. As a consequence of this, it is anticipated that it will be beneficial to make use of the XGboost model in the dosage optimization and estimation of in vitro parameters in micropropagation studies of the Aronia plant for further scientific investigation.