Environmental conditions affect human life in various ways. One of the domains of environmental conditions is buildings, and amongst them, a major and important group is the historical buildings. To keep this inheritance alive, one needs to determine the effects of environmental conditions. In this work, effects of lichens and NOx on 7 historical buildings in Erzurum were investigated. Historical buildings are readily available for lichen growth, which takes a long time, and this growth was investigated as a sample of environmental effect that occurs through long periods of time. NOx, main source of which is traffic in Erzurum, were considered as the environmental effect of daily life.