Genetic and phenotypic variation of Turkish Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) accessions and their possible relationship with American, Indian and African germplasms

Yıldız M., Ekbic E., DÜZYAMAN E., Serce S., Abak K.

JOURNAL OF PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, vol.25, no.3, pp.234-244, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 25 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s13562-015-0330-x
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.234-244
  • Keywords: Characterization, Genetic resources, Germplasm, Okra, DIVERSITY, COLLECTION, SRAP, GENOTYPES, MARKERS
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: Yes


Okra is an important vegetable crop that provides a significant portion of vitamins and minerals for populations in several countries. Okra has been cultivated in Turkey for centuries, and was likely introduced by the Arabs from Africa in ancient times. In this study, we aimed to clarify the genetic variation within 35 Turkish okra germplasm, by comparing it against 25 different genotypes from India, Africa, and the United States, using 30 morphological characters and 19 sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) primer combinations. Fruit, leaf, and stem color were the primary characteristics to distinguish the okra accessions. Those features, among 30 individual phenotypic traits, explained 42 % of phenotypic variation in the first three axes of the principal component analysis (PCA) with leaf shape, flower size, cotyledon length, fruit-surface angularity, cotyledon width, and petal color. Phenotypic observation results showed that while 1051 Togo (10.76), Red Wonder (7.99), TR-05-1 (7.2), 1159 Togo (7.17), and Red Balady (7.15) were found to be more divergent accessions, Cajun Queen (5.06), Perkins Spineless (5.09), Jade (5.18), TR-01-1 (5.2), and DLGG (5.32) were the closest okra accessions. According to phenotypic data, Turkish okra accessions were located adjacent to the Indian, American, and African okra accessions in clusters three and four. However, marker data showed that African okra possessed a more distinct form compared to the other okra germplasms. Nineteen SRAP primer combinations produced 92 bands and 29 (31.5 %) of them were found to be polymorphic among okra accessions. 1051 Togo was found to be the most divergent accession in phenotypic observation.