Effectiveness of fungal bacterial biofertilizers on agrobiochemical attributes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) under salinity stress

Karimi G., Pourakbar L., Siavash Moghaddam S., Rezaee Danesh Y., Popovi´c-Djordjevi´c J.

International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol.19, no.12, pp.11989-12002, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 19 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s13762-022-04427-x
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, Geobase, INSPEC, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.11989-12002
  • Keywords: Flavonoids, Growth, Halophyte, High-performance liquid chromatography, Phenols, Quinoa
  • Van Yüzüncü Yıl University Affiliated: No


The effects of fungi and bacteria biofertilizers under salinity stress were studied on some morphological and physiological traits of quinoa. The experiment was conducted as a factorial based on a completely randomized design with three replications. The factors included NaCl (no salinity-150 mM NaCl and 300 mM NaCl), Trichoderma (no Trichoderma and Trichoderma), and bacterial biofertilizers (no biofertilizer-N biofertilizer and P biofertilizer). The highest shoot and root length and dry weight were observed in the treatment of no salinity + no Trichoderma + N biofertilizer. Salinity increased Na + and K + content and decreased K + /Na + ratio, whereas the application of Trichoderma alleviated the effect of salinity on these factors. Ca2+/Na+ and Mg2+/Na+ ratios were significantly decreased in high salinity level compared to the zero salinity level. The highest and lowest phenol content was observed in the treatments of 300 mM NaCl + Trichoderma + P biofertilizer and no salinity + no Trichoderma + N biofertilizer, respectively. Flavonoid content was higher in the treatments of no salinity + Trichoderma + N biofertilizer and no salinity + Trichoderma + P biofertilizer than in the other treatments, also The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that all phenolic and flavonoid compounds exhibited the greatest increase in treatments of no salinity + Trichoderma + N biofertilizer and no salinity + Trichoderma + P biofertilizer, which is consistent with the significant increase in total flavonoid content in these treatments. The results showed that using N biofertilizer can improve the growth and development of quinoa in saline soils.