BACKGROUND: Cytokines are protein substances involved in immune response and inflammation regulation, cell growth, tissue repair and natural and adaptive immunity events such as hematopoiesis. Changes in Th1 and Th2 immune responses provide information on the clinical presentation, pathology and diagnosis of diseases. An immune response characterized by simultaneous induction of Th1 and Th2 responses occurs in CE and fascioliasis. Th1 is associated with protective immunity, and Th2 is associated with susceptibility to infection and pathogenicity. There is a stable balance between these two types of immune response in CE and fascioliasis.
OBJECTIVES: It is a great importance to investigate specific cytokines involved in the formation of immune responses in these infections.
SETTINGS: Hospital of Medical Faculty
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 111 patients, aged between 18-95, who applied to university hospital. Serum samples were taken from patients and levels of IL-4, IL-10, TNF α and IFN γ parameters were investigated by ELISA method. Results were evaluated by spectrophotometer and it was observed that which immunologic parameters increased in which infections.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Molecular prevalence of parasite, sex and living areas of patients. Cytokine results were also evaluated according to patient age groups and genders. Chi-square and/or Fisher's exact test were used to evaluate the results. IL-4 response was detected in 50.9%; IL-10 in 44.2%; TNF-α in 43.3% and IFN-γ in 43.3% of CE seropositive patients.
SAMPLE SIZE: 111 patients
RESULTS: IL-4 response was found in 43.1%; IL-10 in 39.2%; TNF-α in 34.4% and IFN-γ in 41.9% of fascioliasis seropositive patients. Increase was observed in all investigated cytokines and so the presence of Th1 and Th2 responses were detected in both infections. There was a significant relationship between fascioliasis and IL-4 response and between CE and IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-α responses (P≤0.05). While there no correlation was found between cytokine responses and age groups, the relationship between TNF-α and IFN-γ responses and with male gender was found significant.
CONCLUSIONS: These cytokine levels may provide information about the immune response to infections, and may be useful for early detection of disease and recurrence and monitoring of treatment.
LIMITATIONS: Investigation of a limited number of cytokines in economic terms
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: There is no conflict of interest
KEYWORDS: cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, cytokine, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10.