The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of borax (BX) against heavy metal exposure on the transcriptional and biochemical reaction in vivo and alleviating effect on gill and liver tissues of rainbow trout. Due to this aim, fish were fed with different level of BX and/or copper (Cu) (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of BX; 500 and 1000 mg/kg of Cu) for 21.days in pre- and co-treatment options. The transcriptional parameters [(heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70), and cytochromes P450 (cyp1a), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT))], antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and caspase-3 levels were investigated in different tissues samples of treated and control fish. Our results revealed that antioxidant enzyme activity was increased and levels of 8-OHdG, Caspase-3 and MDA were decreased in the BX and BX combined groups as compared to the copper combination group and to copper-only application during pre- and co-treatment (p < 0.05). Similarly, hsp70 and cyp1a gene expressions were decreased after treatment with BX. As conclusion, we suggest that borax itself is not an antioxidant it supportes antioxidant defense mechanism of fish disrupted by heavy metals.