Atatürk’ün Yerel Otoritelerle İlişkilerine Bir Örnek: Bitlisli Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi (An Example On Ataturk’s Relations With Local Authorities: Kufrevizâde Abdulbâki Efendi From Bitlis )


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Kardaş A.

TURKISH STUDIES, cilt.10, ss.247-262, 2015 (Diğer Kurumların Hakemli Dergileri)

  • Cilt numarası: 10 Konu: 9
  • Basım Tarihi: 2015
  • Dergi Adı: TURKISH STUDIES
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.247-262

Özet

ÖZET
Birinci Dünya Savaşı, Millî Mücadele ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Devleti’nin kurulması dönemlerinde devletin yanında yer alıp, dinî ve
siyasî nüfuzlarını kullanarak, bulundukları bölgelerde etkili olan ancak
kayıtlara geçmeyen önemli şahsiyetler bulunmaktadır. Bu bağlamda
yaptığı hizmetlerle Osmanlı Devleti yöneticilerinin takdirini kazanan,
Birinci Dünya Savaşı öncesinde kurduğu tekkesinde Bitlis ve çevresinde
yüzlerce talebenin yetişmesini sağlayan ve bölgede Rus tahrikleriyle
patlak veren Molla Selim İsyanı’nın bastırılmasında çok önemli
faaliyetlerde bulunan Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi’yi anmak
gerekmektedir.
Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi, Birinci Dünya Savaşı’nın başlaması
ile yöredeki halkın gönüllü birlikler kurarak düşmanla mücadeleye
başlamalarında önemli rol oynamıştı. Ancak bütün çabalara rağmen
düşmanın ilerlemesine engel olunamamıştı. Bu nedenle ilerleyen Rus -
Ermeni birlikleri Bitlis’i işgal etmişti. Bitlis’in işgalden kurtarılması için
bölgeye gönderilen Mustafa Kemâl (Atatürk) Paşa, Bitlis’e gittiğinde
Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi’yi ziyaret etmiş ve Küfrevî ailesiyle
dostluk kurmuştu. Bu dostluk çerçevesinde Mustafa Kemal Paşa,
Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi’nin talep ve sorunlarıyla yakından
ilgilenmiş, Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi de yörede bulunan aşiretler
üzerindeki nüfuzunu kullanarak halkın teşkilâtlanması ve düşmanla
savaşmasını sağlamıştı. Mustafa Kemâl Paşa ile Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî
Efendi arasındaki dostluğu gösteren çok sayıda mektup bulunmaktadır.
Mustafa Kemâl Paşa’nın bu mektupları Bitlis’teki dinî otoritelerle iyi
ilişkiler kurduğunu göstermesi bakımından önem arz etmektedir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Mustafa Kemâl Paşa, Bitlis, Küfrevîzâde
Abdülbâkî Efendi, Birinci Dünya Savaşı.

STRUCTURED ABSTRACT
There are prominent personalities, who take the side of the state in the period of First World War, the National Struggle and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey and use religious and political influence in the regions on which they are located, but go on record. In this context, it is convenient to mention Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi who is appreciated by the governor of the Ottoman Empire for his services, and provide training hundreds of students around Bitlis in his dervish lodge founded before the First World War, and play very important activities in the suppression of Selim Molla Rebellion erupted with Russian provocation. Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi opposed the rebellions and he prevents local people from joining the revolt. Therefore, he was awarded by Sultan Mehmed (Sultan Rashad).
Due to Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi’s work in favor of the government and his services in Bitlis Incident, the Ottoman government connects him a salary. Then the salary which was connected began tobe paid from the War Ministry's covered benefits. This salary had been going on paid to until the end of the First World War Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi has also been rewarded with Mecidi Insignia from the fifth rank considering the sacrifices he showed during Bitlis Incident and in accordance with demand of Islamic Meshikhat Departmant, he has rewarded with Mecidi Insignia from the fourth rank because of his useful work in the First World War.
With the start of the First World War, Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi plays an important role in starting the fight with the enemy by establishing a voluntary union of peoples in the region. However, despite all efforts, progress of the enemy could not be inhibited. Therefore, progressing Russian - Armenian troops occupied Bitlis. Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) Pasha, who was sent to the region for the liberation of Bitlis, visited to Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi and had established friendship with the Küfrevî family. By this friendship, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was concerned with Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi’s demands and problems and Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi had also let people got organized to fight the enemy by using his influence on the tribal people in the region. There are many in the letter showing friendship between Mustafa Kemal Pasha and Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi. These letters written by Mustafa Kemal Pasha is important because they show that Mustafa Kemal Pasha has established good relations with the religious authorities in Bitlis.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha wanted Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi who had been familiar during the First World War to support the National Struggle. Since Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi has a great influence in and around Bitlis. After the Erzurum Congress, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was sent Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi a letter explaining the decisions taken at the congress and the situation in the country. In accordance with the request in this letter, Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi worked for the people in and around Bitlis to support the National Struggle. Besides this, Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi opposes separatist activities in the region started in that period.
As it was during the First World War, at the request of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, in this period Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi has precluded the tribes to the separatist ideas by using his influence on them. After the acquisition of National Struggle, Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi return to his lodge and continued to scientific activities and he did not give effective support to the Sheikh Said Rebellion which began in the region at a short time. However, after suppressing the rebellion, the government took a decision that Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi and his family, like some other tribes in Bitlis, was forced to migrate to the western provinces. Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi has been given an apartment in Üsküdar because of the reasons such as no relation with the rebellion and presence of the efforts on local people no to participate in the revolt, and had a close friendship with Mustafa Kemal Pasha. Thus, until the end of his life, Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî Efendi was involved in important activities for local people in order to live in peace.
Master Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî is an influential person who supported the state during the World War I, National Struggle, and foundation period of Republic of Turkey and played an important role inhis region by also exercising his religious influence. In his Religious
Lodge established before the World War I, he allowed many people to be
trained in Bitlis and in the neighborhood and thereby provided very
beneficial works for repressing the uprising of Molla Selim Riot.
Master Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî did undertake significant roles in
promoting the local people to establish volunteer militia and struggle
against the enemy following the start of World War I. However,
occupation of Bitlis by Russian still couldn’t be prevented. Mustafa
Kemal Pasha appointed to the region after the occupation of Bitlis had a
good friendship with Master Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî. As a consequence
of this friendship, Mustafa Kemal Pasha took a close interest in the
demands and problems of Master Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî and so Master
Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî used his influence on the local tribes in the
region and ensured the public to take up arms and fight against the
enemy. There are many letters demonstrating the friendship between
Mustafa Kemal Pasha and Master Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî. Such letters
of Mustafa Kemal Pasha are remarkably significant to show that he had
good relations with the local authorities in Bitlis.
Key Words: Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Bitlis, Küfrevîzâde Abdülbâkî
Efendi, the First World War.