The effects of microwave heating for 3, 6, and 9 min at a frequency of 2450 MHz on fatty acid composition, tocopherols, iodine value, free fatty acids (%), peroxide value, conjugated dienes and trienes, and hexanal contents of refined hazelnut, soybean, sunflower, and virgin olive oils were investigated. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease was observed in linoleic and linolenic acids contents of soybean oil during exposure to microwave heating. Tocopherol contents of oil samples significantly decreased (p < 0.05) during microwave heating. Free fatty acids of the samples slightly increased and iodine value showed reduction throughout the process. Conjugated dienes contents of samples showed an increasing trend up to the 6 min, followed by a reduction at 9 min. Conjugated triene fatty acids of all the samples significantly increased (p < 0.05) throughout the application. While peroxide value showed increasing trend up to the 3 min and sharply decreased at 9 min, hexanal contents of refined hazelnut, virgin olive, soybean, and sunflower oils increased 63, 28, 55, and 389 fold, respectively, after 9 min exposure to microwave heating. Kinetic analysis of data showed that the reaction orders for peroxide and hexanal formation were zero and first order, respectively, and in the tested oils the reaction rate followed the order: soybean oil ? sunflower oil ? hazelnut oil ? virgin olive oil for peroxide, and sunflower oil ? soybean oil ? hazelnut oil ? virgin olive oil for hexanal formation. It was concluded that hexanal could be considered as a parameter for evaluation of the quality of oils exposed to microwave heating.