Recently have been observed a rise in the consumption of herbal medicines, including medicinal and aromatic plants. Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) became a popular plant by using widely in food industry and pharmacy. The plant was distinguished by the presence of essential oils, polyacetylenes, as well as lignans, sesquiterpenes and flavonoids. The composition of the essential oils of tarragon growing wild in Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey was investigated. Essential oils of the aerial parts of tarragon were isolated using the hydro-distillation method and their chemical constituents were determined by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) in combination with retention indices. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 1,8-cineole (35.88%), camphor (32.28%), camphene (9.13%), bomeol (7.07%), thymene (3.31%), terpinen-4-ol (3.26%), gamma-terpinene (1.32%), alpha-terpineol (1.29%), caryophyllene oxide (1.28%), and f3-pinene (1.10%) as major components. Essential oils of tarragon extracts were screened for antibacterial activity against three gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli) and three gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Enterecoccus faecalis) bacteria. All tested bacteria were sensitive to the essential oils of tarragon at a concentration of 20%, with the inhibition zones ranging from 10 to 15 mm. The essential oil of tarragon showed less antibacterial activity compared to the chemical antibiotics ampicillin and ofloxacin.