The present study investigated the protective potential of the polyphenols in pomegranate juice against the detrimental effects of lead exposure on the hematological system and antioxidant parameters of rat red blood cells. Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing about 300 g were allocated randomly to four groups: a control group that received normal food and water; a positive control group that received a daily dose of 2000 ppm lead (as lead acetate) in their drinking water for 5 weeks; a low treatment group that received a daily dose of 2000 ppm lead together with 30 mu l pomegranate juice (PJ; equivalent to 1050 mu mol total polyphenols) by gavages for 5 weeks; and a high treatment group that received 2000 ppm lead and 60 mu l PJ (equivalent to 2100 mu mol total polyphenols) daily for 5 weeks. The plasma lead level was significantly (p<0.001) decreased as the plasma copper and zinc levels were significantly increased (p<0.001) in rats received PJ. Significant increases (p<0.001) in red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, and haemoglobin (Hb) and packet cell volume (PCV) were found in both PJ groups compared to the rats exposed to lead alone. Rats that received PJ in addition to lead showed erythrocyte glutathione and plasma ceruloplasmin levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities' that were almost close to the control values. These observations indicated that treatment of rats with polyphenols might have produced amelioration in hematological system of rats exposed to lead, protecting the level of copper, zinc and antioxidants by against lead induced damage in blood cells.