Boron and boron compounds have beneficial biological effects. Lithium metaborate dihydrate (LMBDH) is used in many branches of industry. Despite its wide industrial use, there is limited information about its biological effects on antioxidant defense system and trace element homeostasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo protective effects of LMBDH against CdCl2-induced oxidative stress and imbalance of some bioelements for the first time. In the study, totally 20 Wistar albino male rats were used. The rats were fed with pellet food and water ad libitum and divided into four groups including five rats in each. Group I was control group (standard pellet food + water + normal saline), Group II was CdCl2 (4.58 mg/kg/body weight/intraperitoneally/single dose), Group III was LMBDH (15 mg/kg/body weight/day orally, for 5 days), Group IV was CdCl2 (4.58 mg/kg/body weight/intraperitoneally/single dose in fifth day), and LMBDH (15 mg/kg/body weight/day orally for 5 days). The results showed that CdCl2 treatment increased blood MDA level and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and the level of blood GSH compared to control group. Pretreatment with LMBDH significantly decreased MDA levels and increased SOD activity (p < 0.05). In addition, Ca, Fe, and K levels decreased in LMBDH pretreatment group in different statistically levels. However, Mg levels showed an increase in LMBDH pretreatment group. As a result, LMBDH pretreatment decreased MDA status and supported antioxidant system by increasing SOD activity. In addition, it did not exhibit an ameliorative effect on measured bioelement homeostasis.