Increased oxidative stress is a well-known phenomenon in dialysis patients. However, the contribution of hypertension to the oxidative stress in peritoneal dialysis patients has not yet been assessed. The present study aimed to investigate if hypertension had an additional effect on oxidative stress in peritoneal dialysis patients. A total of 50 patients treated with peritoneal dialysis were divided into two groups: The patients with mean of last three blood pressure results as 135/90 mmHg and above were considered hypertensive, the patients with lower blood pressure were considered normotensive. The control group included 25 healthy individuals. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured in all groups. MDA level, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, was significantly higher in the hypertensive group compared to the control group, while the increase in the normotensive group was not significant. However, the difference between the hypertensive and normotensive groups was significant. The levels of AOPP, an indicator of protein oxidation level, and MPO, an indicator of neutrophil activation, were not different between the groups, while the activities of antioxidant CAT and GSH-Px decreased in both normotensive and hypertensive groups compared to the control group, and there was no significant difference between the patient groups. This study shows that both normotensive and hypertensive peritoneal dialysis patients have increased-oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant levels and hypertension might have an additional effect on oxidative stress by increasing MDA level in peritoneal dialysis patients. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.