High-throughput aging studies with yeast as a model organism involve transposon-mutagenesis and yeast knockout collection, which have been pivotal strategies for understanding the complex cellular aging process. In this study, a chronologically long-lived Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant was successfully obtained by using another high-throughput approach, evolutionary engineering, based on systematic selection in successive batch cultures under gradually increasing levels of caloric restriction. Detailed comparative physiological and transcriptomic analyses of the chronologically long-lived mutant and the reference strain revealed enhanced levels of respiratory metabolism, upregulation of genes related to carbohydrate metabolic processes, glycogen-trehalose pathways, stress response, and repression of protein synthesis-related genes in the long-lived mutant SRM11, already in the absence of caloric restriction. Interestingly, SRM11 had also significantly higher resistance to copper stress, and higher resistance to silver, ethanol, and 2-phenylethanol stresses than the reference strain. It also had lower ethanol production levels and an enhanced ethanol catabolism. To conclude, evolutionary engineering is another powerful high-throughput method for aging research, in addition to its widespread use in industrial strain development. Additionally, the interesting results revealed by this study about the potential relationship between longevity and various cellular properties are yet to be investigated further at molecular level.